A bibliography is a list of references that have been used in an essay or academic paper and are shown at the end of the essay or academic writing.

This list is important because it shows the reader where your ideas as a writer came from.

An annotated bibliography is a list of references that are important to the topic written about, but each reference is given more information (annotated), such as what the book or article is about, who wrote it, and why it is important to your own writing.

I have provided an example (below) of one annotated reference, that will give an idea of what an annotated reference looks like for anyone writing an essay or academic paper.


Gross, M. (2004). Exceptionally Gifted Children (2nd edition). RoutledgeFalmer, New York.

Miraca Gross, (2004), presents case studies conducted with exceptionally gifted children, explicitly outlining the methodology and procedures of the study, focusing on academic achievement levels and school history of the 15 children studied. Within this text there are numerous examples from the case studies, accompanied with relevant research from other academics in the field, reinforcing Gross’s (2004) theories that gifted children require special provision within the school setting, clearly illustrating through longitudinal case studies how different gifted children are from regular students. Although her text refers specifically to exceptionally gifted children (IQ 160+), Gross’s (2004) text alerts the reader that all gifted students have specific and special academic, emotional, and social needs that require intervention from teachers and parents with knowledge in gifted education to ensure the optimal development of the student (Gross, 2004, p. 23). This premise of special needs in gifted students directly links to my research regarding the use of IEPs for gifted students in Australian classroom.

Each chapter of Exceptionally Gifted Children (Gross, 2004) covers an important aspect of gifted education in Australia. The chapter on psychosocial development (chapter 9) relates to the research on IEPs as gifted children not only have specific academic learning needs, but also have social and emotional needs that differ from their age-peers. Incorporating these differences into an IEP for support and development in these areas could be invaluable to gifted children.

Although, Gross (2004), does not specifically advocate for IEP’s for gifted students, the IEP, thoughtfully used, can provide differentiation, accountability, and individual pacing that gifted students require.

It is evident in Exceptionally Gifted Children (Gross, 2004), that there are a two areas useful for a systematic review: the need for teacher training in the area of gifted education; and the recognition of specific academic, social, and emotional needs of highly gifted students.


Hopefully, the above example, combined with helpful advice from your English tutor or teacher, will help you write your own annotated bibliography.